How Much Liability Auto Insurance Should You Really Have?

Trying to determine the right amount of auto insurance coverage you need for your car or automobile can initially look like it will be a daunting task at best. With the state mandated auto insurance requirements different between every state perhaps the best place to start would be to find out exactly what the minimum requirements for auto insurance coverage are in the state you currently reside in. For instance Alaska requires the minimum liability coverage to be in the amounts of $50,000 of bodily injury liability for one person, $100,000 bodily injury liability for all people and $25,000 property damage liability. Now compare that to Florida where the state car liability insurance requirements are as low as $10,000 of bodily injury liability for one person, $20,000 bodily injury liability for all people and $10,000 property damage liability.Liability vehicle insurance is required in order to protect other drivers in the event that you are the individual responsible for causing an accident. As previously mentioned it is the lowest set standards or requirements in terms of insurance that you must have in order to legally drive your automobile in your state of residence. Liability auto insurance doesn’t offer any protection or coverage for your own auto or vehicle. In fact, most banks will not loan you the necessary capital needed to purchase a new or used car unless you have full coverage auto insurance, which is comprehensive coverage and collision coverage. That’s because should you get in an accident and become found, as at fault, full coverage auto insurance will pay for all the damages to your own vehicle as well as the car you struck during the accident. With liability auto insurance your car will not be covered thus a bank will not loan money on an underinsured vehicle.Still, many consumers only carry liability auto insurance for the simple fact that it allows a cheaper monthly rate or auto insurance premium to be paid. Also many folks only insure their car for what it’s worth so in some instances, perhaps only having the liability portion of auto insurance is all that’s needed. The reality is if your vehicle isn’t worth a whole lot and you can afford to purchase another vehicle should your current car get totaled in an accident then liability insurance may be the only type of auto insurance coverage you require.If you do decide to only insure your car or automobile with liability auto insurance then no matter what your state mandated minimum insurance requirements are it would be beneficial to carry the following amount of auto insurance, $50,000 bodily injury liability for one person, $100,000 for all folks injured in an accident and $25,000 property damage liability. This breaks down into 50/100/25, which remember was the state of Alaska’s minimum amount for liability auto insurance.

Experience of Privatization of Education in India

The experience over the last few decades has clearly shown that unlike school education, privatization has not led to any major improvements in the standards of higher and professional education. Yet, in the run up to the economic reforms in 1991, the IMF, World Bank and the countries that control them have been crying hoarse over the alleged pampering of higher education in India at the cost of school education. The fact of the matter was that school education was already privatized to the extent that government schools became an option only to those who cannot afford private schools mushrooming in every street corner, even in small towns and villages. On the other hand, in higher education and professional courses, relatively better quality teaching and infrastructure has been available only in government colleges and universities, while private institutions of higher education in India capitalised on fashionable courses with minimum infrastructure.Nevertheless, successive governments over the last two decades have only pursued a path of privatization and deregulation of higher education, regardless of which political party ran the government. From the Punnaiah committee on reforms in higher education set up by the Narasimha Rao government to the Birla-Ambani committee set up by the Vajpayee government, the only difference is in their degree of alignment to the market forces and not in the fundamentals of their recommendations.With the result, the last decade has witnessed many sweeping changes in higher and professional education: For example, thousands of private colleges and institutes offering IT courses appeared all across the country by the late 1990s and disappeared in less than a decade, with devastating consequences for the students and teachers who depended on them for their careers. This situation is now repeating itself in management, biotechnology, bioinformatics and other emerging areas. No one asked any questions about opening or closing such institutions, or bothered about whether there were qualified teachers at all, much less worry about teacher-student ratio, floor area ratio, class rooms, labs, libraries etc. All these regulations that existed at one time (though not always enforced strictly as long as there were bribes to collect) have now been deregulated or softened under the self-financing scheme of higher and professional education adopted by the UGC in the 9th five-year plan and enthusiastically followed by the central and state governments.This situation reached its extreme recently in the new state of Chattisgarh, where over 150 private universities and colleges came up within a couple of years, till the scam got exposed by a public interest litigation and the courts ordered the state government in 2004 to derecognise and close most of these universities or merge them with the remaining recognized ones. A whole generation of students and teachers are suffering irreparable damage to their careers due to these trends, for no fault of theirs. Even government-funded colleges and universities in most states started many “self-financing” courses in IT, biotechnology etc., without qualified teachers, labs or infrastructure and charging huge fees from the students and are liberally giving them marks and degrees to hide their inadequacies.It is not that the other well established departments and courses in government funded colleges and universities are doing any better. Decades of government neglect, poor funding, frequent ban on faculty recruitment and promotions, reduction in library budgets, lack of investments in modernization leading to obsolescence of equipment and infrastructure, and the tendency to start new universities on political grounds without consolidating the existing ones today threatens the entire higher education system.Another corollary of this trend is that an educational institution recognized in a particular state need not limit its operations to that state. This meant that universities approved by the governments of Chattisgarh or Himachal Pradesh can set up campuses in Delhi or Noida, where they are more likely to get students from well off families who can afford their astronomical fees. What is more, they are not even accountable to the local governments, since their recognition comes from a far away state. Add to this a new culture of well-branded private educational institutions allowing franchisees at far away locations to run their courses, without being responsible to the students or teachers in any other way. This is increasingly becoming a trend with foreign universities, especially among those who do not want to set up their own shop here, but would like to benefit from the degree-purchasing power of the growing upwardly mobile economic class of India. Soon we might see private educational institutions getting themselves listed in the stock market and soliciting investments in the education business on the slogan that its demand will never see the sunset.The economics of imparting higher education are such that, barring a few courses in arts and humanities, imparting quality education in science, technology, engineering, medicine etc. requires huge investments in infrastructure, all of which cannot be recovered through student fees, without making higher education inaccessible to a large section of students. Unlike many better-known private educational institutions in Western countries that operate in the charity mode with tuition waivers and fellowships (which is one reason why our students go there), most private colleges and universities in India are pursuing a profit motive. This is the basic reason for charging huge tuition fees, apart from forced donations, capitation fees and other charges. Despite huge public discontent, media interventions and many court cases, the governments have not been able to regulate the fee structure and donations in these institutions. Even the courts have only played with the terms such as payment seats, management quotas etc., without addressing the basic issue of fee structure.

Use of Educational Television in Distance Education

Actually, “Educational television” by the name only means the use of television for educational purposes. There is a trend of using television programs as medium for education in distance learning courses. This can be of two different types in their basic design, the first kind of educational television being a particular program on television that can be referred to for some learning purpose and the next kind of educational television is of employing a complete channel dedicated to knowledge programs those are subscribed for various educational purposes. These channels are generally under the regulations of and associated with the cable television in the United States of America and are known as Public Educational and Government (PEG) access channels. These specialty channels can be a source of any kind of information and knowledge shows which may be targeted to a certain group of students.In addition to these there are also adult education channels which are mainly for post secondary students and can help them earn college credits. These channels generally broadcast content for an older viewership and are also referred to as “instructional television” at times. The shows on these instructional televisions are usually less than an hour or even half in duration so that they can be accommodated within a class timing and also are not too lengthy to make you feel bore and lose interest. Examples of these are shows like the Open University programs on BBC and the likes of it. The instructional television shows can sometimes be combined with teachers’ guides and are often broadcasted on the Public Broadcasting Service stations of the United States of America. These days they are also featured on digital sub-channels and on Non commercial educational public stations. However, they can also be passed on to some Educational access televisions which are mainly run by a Public Educational and Government access channels of the cable TV organization of America.Speaking of Public Educational and Government access channels also known as PEG channels or Local access channels and consist of three different types of specialty channels on cable television. They are Public Access television and Educational access television and Government access television.Public access television is free of editorial control and is a non-commercial design of mass media where anybody i.e. any common person can develop and broadcast video programs by buying the slot for a minimal charge or even for free at times. The content of these shows are generally community interestsEducational access channels are those which are solely concerned with educational programs and are a part of “educational television” for distance learning courses. These channels are also sometimes inducted in school curriculums as a part of their distance education program. Educational access television is synchronous with educational technology and the channels do broadcast instructional television programs within the city limits of that cable operator.Government access channels are on the other hand channels airing various government proceedings to the general people of the nation.